# Safety and methods engineering

1. A person is accidentally irradiated by 1.6*10^13 gamma photons having wavelength of 50 picometers each, 2*10^13 neutrons having energy of 0.5 MeV each, 5*10^12 neutrons having the energy 20 MeV each, 0.5*10^12 neutrons having the energy of 60 MeV each, 5*10^12 high energy protons each travelling at 0.5c (where c is the speed of the light in the vacuum), 1*10^11 heavy nuclei having 15 MeV each for 10 seconds. The person weighs 70 kilograms. The 8% of radiation energy is transferred to gonads, 25% to red bone marrow, 10% to colon, 10% lung, 35% skin, 5% brain, 5% liver, and 2% to stomach. (60217662 × 10-19 joules= 1 eV). Assume that all kinetic energy of the protons and photons are transferred to the body. Based on this information, calculate,

1. How many grays does the person receive?
2. How many Sieverts does the person receive?
3. How many rems does the person receive?
5. What is likely to happen? Is the radiation dose she receives dangerous to health?
6. Will the results change if the person receives the dose in a year as compared to 10-seconds?

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 Organs Tissue weighting factors ICRP26 1977 ICRP60 1990[13] ICRP103 2007[14] Gonads 0.25 0.20 0.08 Red Bone Marrow 0.12 0.12 0.12 Colon – 0.12 0.12 Lung 0.12 0.12 0.12 Stomach – 0.12 0.12 Breasts 0.15 0.05 0.12 Bladder – 0.05 0.04 Liver – 0.05 0.04 Oesophagus – 0.05 0.04 Thyroid 0.03 0.05 0.04 Skin – 0.01 0.01 Bone surface 0.03 0.01 0.01 Salivary glands – – 0.01 Brain – – 0.01 Remainder of body 0.30 0.05 0.12 Total 1.00 1.00 1.00

 Radiation Energy WR (formerly Q) x-rays, gamma rays, beta particles, muons 1 neutrons (< 1 MeV) 2.5 + 18.2e-[ln(E)]2/6 neutrons (1 – 50 MeV) 5.0 + 17.0e-[ln(2E)]2/6 neutrons (> 50 MeV) 2.5 + 3.25e-[ln(0.04E)]2/6 protons, charged pions 2 alpha particles, nuclear fission products, heavy nuclei 20

1. A paper mill used liquid chlorine, delivered in 90 ton railroad tank cars, as pulp bleaching agent. One volume of the liquid chlorine produces approximately 450 volumes of vapor, under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure. The density of the liquid chlorine is 103 pounds per cubic foot. In the event of rupture and vapor release of 20% of the tank car contents, how much vapor by volume would be released? If the release is in the closed building with a 30-foot ceiling height without ventilation, how large the building have to be (in square miles of floor space) to contain the thoroughly mixed vapor-air ratio within the OSHA PEL? The logical conclusion of the exercise is that with or without ventilation, it is more practical and safer to unload chlorine tanks outdoors.
2. A particular gas welding process in a confined space of a suspected of producing dangerous concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, iron oxide particulate, and manganese fumes. Atmospheric sampling produces the following exposure data.
 Period Carbon monoxide(ppm) Carbon dioxide (ppm) Iron oxide (mg/m^3) Manganese (ppm) 8:00 am-9:00 am 15 1000 2 1.5 9:00 am-11:00 am 10 1000 1 2 11:00 am-2:00 pm 20 1000 2 1.75 2:00 pm-4:00 pm 10 500 2 2

1. Please do calculations to determine whether the combined exposure represents an OSHA violation
2. If the gas welding takes place in California, does your answer to a change? Why (not)?

Hint: Please use the ppm=((mg/m^3)*24.45)/Molecular weight conversion to calculate the mg/m^3 equivalent of manganese

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