Safety and methods engineering

  1. A person is accidentally irradiated by 1.6*10^13 gamma photons having wavelength of 50 picometers each, 2*10^13 neutrons having energy of 0.5 MeV each, 5*10^12 neutrons having the energy 20 MeV each, 0.5*10^12 neutrons having the energy of 60 MeV each, 5*10^12 high energy protons each travelling at 0.5c (where c is the speed of the light in the vacuum), 1*10^11 heavy nuclei having 15 MeV each for 10 seconds. The person weighs 70 kilograms. The 8% of radiation energy is transferred to gonads, 25% to red bone marrow, 10% to colon, 10% lung, 35% skin, 5% brain, 5% liver, and 2% to stomach. (60217662 × 10-19 joules= 1 eV). Assume that all kinetic energy of the protons and photons are transferred to the body. Based on this information, calculate,

 

  1. How many grays does the person receive?
  2. How many Sieverts does the person receive?
  3. How many rems does the person receive?
  4. How many rads the person receive?
  5. What is likely to happen? Is the radiation dose she receives dangerous to health?
  6. Will the results change if the person receives the dose in a year as compared to 10-seconds?

 

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Level (mSv) Level in standard form (mSv) Duration Hourly equivalent (μSv/hour) Description
0.001 1×10−3 Hourly 1 Cosmic ray dose rate on commercial flights varies from 1 to 10 μSv/hour, depending on altitude, position and solar sunspot phase.[1]
0.01 1×10−2 Daily 0.4 Natural background radiation, including radon[2]
0.06 6×10−2 Acute Chest X-ray (AP+Lat)[3]
0.07 7×10−2 Acute Transatlantic airplane flight.[1]
0.09 9×10−2 Acute Dental X-ray (Panoramic)[3]
0.1 1×10−1 Annual 0.011 Average USA dose from consumer products[4]
0.15 1.5×10−1 Annual 0.017 USA EPA cleanup standard[citation needed]
0.25 2.5×10−1 Annual 0.028 USA NRC cleanup standard for individual sites/sources[citation needed]
0.27 2.7×10−1 Annual 0.031 Yearly dose from natural cosmic radiation at sea level (0.5 in Denver due to altitude)[4]
0.28 2.8×10−1 Annual 0.032 USA yearly dose from natural terrestrial radiation (0.16-0.63 depending on soil composition)[4]
0.46 4.6×10−1 Acute Estimated largest off-site dose possible from March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident[citation needed]
0.48 4.8×10−1 Day 20 USA NRC public area exposure limit[citation needed]
0.66 6.6×10−1 Annual 0.075 Average USA dose from human-made sources[2]
0.7 7×10−1 Acute Mammogram[3]
1 1×100 Annual 0.11 Limit of dose from man-made sources to a member of the public who is not a radiation worker in the US and Canada[2][5]
1.1 1.1×100 Annual 0.13 1980 average USA radiation worker occupational dose[2]
1.2 1.2×100 Acute Abdominal X-ray[3]
2 2×100 Annual 0.23 USA average medical and natural background [2]
Human internal radiation due to radon, varies with radon levels[4]
2 2×100 Acute Head CT[3]
3 3×100 Annual 0.34 USA average dose from all natural sources[2]
3.66 3.66×100 Annual 0.42 USA average from all sources, including medical diagnostic radiation doses[citation needed]
4 4×100 Duration of the pregnancy 0.6 Canada CNSC maximum occupational dose to a pregnant woman who is a designated Nuclear Energy Worker.[5]
5 5×100 Pregnancy 0.77 USA NRC occupational limit for pregnant women[citation needed]
5 5×100 Annual 0.57 USA NRC occupational limit for minors (10% of adult limit)
USA NRC limit for visitors[6]
6.4 6.4×100 Annual 0.73 High Background Radiation Area (HBRA) of Yangjiang, China[7]
7.6 7.6×100 Annual 0.87 Fountainhead Rock Place, Santa Fe, NM natural[citation needed]
8 8×100 Acute Chest CT[3]
10 1×101 Acute Lower dose level for public calculated from the 1 to 5 rem range for which USA EPA guidelines mandate emergency action when resulting from a nuclear accident[2]
Abdominal CT[3]
14 1.4×101 Acute 18F FDG PET scan,[8] Whole Body
50 5×101 Annual 5.7 USA NRC/ Canada CNSC occupational limit for designated Nuclear Energy Workers[5](10 CFR 20)
100 1×102 Acute USA EPA acute dose level estimated to increase cancer risk 0.8%[2]
100 1×102 5 years 2.3 Canada CNSC occupational limit over a 5-year dosimetry period for designated Nuclear Energy Workers[5]
120 1.2×102 30 years 0.46 Exposure, long duration, Ural mountains, lower limit, lower cancer mortality rate[9]
150 1.5×102 Annual 17 USA NRC occupational eye lens exposure limit[citation needed][clarification needed]
170 1.7×102 Acute Average dose for 187 000 Chernobyl recovery operation workers in 1986[10][11]
175 1.75×102 Annual 20 Guarapari, Brazil natural radiation sources[citation needed]
250 2.5×102 Acute USA EPA voluntary maximum dose for emergency non-life-saving work[2]
250 2.5×102 2 hours 125 000 (125 mSv/hour) Whole body dose exclusion zone criteria for US nuclear reactor siting[12] (converted from 25 rem)
260 2.6×102 Annual 30 Calculated from 260 mGy per year peak natural background dose in Ramsar[13]
400-900 4–9×102 Annual 46-103 Unshielded in interplanetary space.[14]
500 5×102 Annual 57 USA NRC occupational whole skin, limb skin, or single organ exposure limit
500 5×102 Acute Canada CNSC occupational limit for designated Nuclear Energy Workers carrying out urgent and necessary work during an emergency.[5]
Low-level radiation sickness due to short-term exposure[15]
750 7.5×102 Acute USA EPA voluntary maximum dose for emergency life-saving work[2]
1000 10×102 Hourly 1 000 000 Level reported during Fukushima I nuclear accidents, in immediate vicinity of reactor[16]
3000 3×103 Acute Thyroid dose (due to iodine absorption) exclusion zone criteria for US nuclear reactor siting[12] (converted from 300 rem)
4800 4.8×103 Acute LD50 (actually LD50/60) in humans from radiation poisoning with medical treatment estimated from 480 to 540 rem.[17]
5000 5×103 Acute Calculated from the estimated 510 rem dose fatally received by Harry Daghlian on August 21, 1945 at Los Alamos and lower estimate for fatality of Russian specialist on April 5, 1968 at Chelyabinsk-70.[18]
5000 5×103 5 000 – 10 000 mSv. Most commercial electronics can survive this radiation level.[19]
16 000 1.6×104 Acute Highest estimated dose to Chernobyl emergency worker diagnosed with acute radiation syndrome[11]
20 000 2×104 Acute 2 114 536 Interplanetary exposure to solar particle event (SPE) of October 1989.[20][21]
21 000 2.1×104 Acute Calculated from the estimated 2100 rem dose fatally received by Louis Slotin on May 21, 1946 at Los Alamos and lower estimate for fatality of Russian specialist on April 5, 1968 Chelyabinsk-70.[18]
48 500 4.85×104 Acute Roughly calculated from the estimated 4500 + 350 rad dose for fatality of Russian experimenter on June 17, 1997 at Sarov.[18]
60 000 6×104 Acute Roughly calculated from the estimated 6000 rem doses for several Russian fatalities from 1958 onwards, such as on May 26, 1971 at the Kurchatov Institute. Lower estimate for fatality of Cecil Kelley at Los Alamos on December 30, 1958.[18]
100 000 1×105 Acute Roughly calculated from the estimated 10000 rad dose for fatality at the United Nuclear Fuels Recovery Plant on July 24, 1964.[18]
10 000 000 000 1×1010 The most radiation-hardened electronics can survive this radiation level.[22]
70 000 000 000 7×1010 Hourly 70 000 000 000 000 Estimated dose rate for the inner wall in ITER (2 kGy/s with an approximate weighting factor of 10)[23]

 

 

Organs Tissue weighting factors
ICRP26
1977
ICRP60
1990
[13]
ICRP103
2007
[14]
Gonads 0.25 0.20 0.08
Red Bone Marrow 0.12 0.12 0.12
Colon 0.12 0.12
Lung 0.12 0.12 0.12
Stomach 0.12 0.12
Breasts 0.15 0.05 0.12
Bladder 0.05 0.04
Liver 0.05 0.04
Oesophagus 0.05 0.04
Thyroid 0.03 0.05 0.04
Skin 0.01 0.01
Bone surface 0.03 0.01 0.01
Salivary glands 0.01
Brain 0.01
Remainder of body 0.30 0.05 0.12
Total 1.00 1.00 1.00

 

Radiation Energy WR (formerly Q)
x-rays, gamma rays, beta particles, muons 1
neutrons (< 1 MeV) 2.5 + 18.2e-[ln(E)]2/6
neutrons (1 – 50 MeV) 5.0 + 17.0e-[ln(2E)]2/6
neutrons (> 50 MeV) 2.5 + 3.25e-[ln(0.04E)]2/6
protons, charged pions 2
alpha particles, nuclear fission products, heavy nuclei 20

 

  1. A paper mill used liquid chlorine, delivered in 90 ton railroad tank cars, as pulp bleaching agent. One volume of the liquid chlorine produces approximately 450 volumes of vapor, under normal atmospheric temperature and pressure. The density of the liquid chlorine is 103 pounds per cubic foot. In the event of rupture and vapor release of 20% of the tank car contents, how much vapor by volume would be released? If the release is in the closed building with a 30-foot ceiling height without ventilation, how large the building have to be (in square miles of floor space) to contain the thoroughly mixed vapor-air ratio within the OSHA PEL? The logical conclusion of the exercise is that with or without ventilation, it is more practical and safer to unload chlorine tanks outdoors.
  2. A particular gas welding process in a confined space of a suspected of producing dangerous concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, iron oxide particulate, and manganese fumes. Atmospheric sampling produces the following exposure data.
Period Carbon monoxide(ppm) Carbon dioxide (ppm) Iron oxide (mg/m^3) Manganese (ppm)
8:00 am-9:00 am 15 1000 2 1.5
9:00 am-11:00 am 10 1000 1 2
11:00 am-2:00 pm 20 1000 2 1.75
2:00 pm-4:00 pm 10 500 2 2

 

  1. Please do calculations to determine whether the combined exposure represents an OSHA violation
  2. If the gas welding takes place in California, does your answer to a change? Why (not)?

Hint: Please use the ppm=((mg/m^3)*24.45)/Molecular weight conversion to calculate the mg/m^3 equivalent of manganese

 

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