Aniconic vs Iconic Representations of Buddha Throughout Indian Art

Art 349 Asian Art Survey                                                                                      Fall 2020


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This is the rubric my teacher gave to me for this research paper. My topic is “Aniconic vs Iconic Representations of Buddha Throughout Indian Art”. Basically just explain how buddha is portrayed differently throughout the anionic and iconic phase in indian art. I tried to write the essay, but it only came out to 5 pages and I need 10-12. I will attach it also so you know what i’m trying to get at. I want to keep all the same ideas but add some, expand, and include pictures of the examples of work at the END of the essay with captions underneath. I will also attach my teachers grading rubric to see how it will be graded. I am currently failing the class, so I need at least a B+ to a A (would prefer an A). I need an annotated bibliography, and a work cited page (all explained below more specifically). I will also attach sources below that will maybe help you, you don’t have to use these in the essay but you may if you wish or if you find better ones that’s cool too (i need four sources in total.,anthropomorphic%20representations%20of%20the%20Buddha.










Research Paper

The assignment involves a three part process:


Research Guidelines:

You could select a topic relating to any aspect of Asian visual culture. By extension this means that you could explore topics from any Asian region and from any time period. Also, since this assignment is also used to assess Global Understanding requirement, Asian visual culture can be studied with relation to its contribution to global awareness and hence topics that compare and contrast Asian culture and the arts to that of other global cultures is encouraged.

A Few Important Aspects to Follow While Writing Your Research Paper


* Annotated Bibliography for at least 4 sources of about 150 -200 words each.

A bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called “References” or “Works Cited” depending on the style format you are using. A bibliography usually just includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the author, title, publisher, etc.).

An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation. Therefore, an annotated bibliography includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources.

Summarize: In your annotations you can merely summarize the source. What are the main arguments? What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? If someone asked what this article/book is about, what would you say? The length of your annotations will determine how detailed your summary is.

* A Title

Choose a topic of an art movement and artist and think of an appropriate title for your research paper.


* Thesis statement

Your thesis statement should tell me in one – three sentences what you intend to focus on in your paper. Your thesis statement can be integrated into your introductory paragraph of your essay. It does not need to be “stand alone” – indeed, a sophisticated essay will incorporate it into the body of the initial paragraph.



Title: “Stonehenge: A Scientific Breakthrough of the Neolithic Era”

Thesis statement

“This paper explores the application of scientific knowledge in the making of the Stonehenge, a monumental breakthrough of the Neolithic era”


*Body of the Paper or Paragraphs

Body paragraphs are explanations and elaborations of your thesis statement.

Once you know what you want to talk about and you have written your thesis statement, you are ready to build the body of your essay.

  • The paragraphs that develop the thesis by explaining your ideas by backing them up
  • Examples or evidence: provide examples of art works and support evidences by paraphrasing and/or citing sources.
  • It is important to link your paragraphs together, giving your readers cues so that they see the relationship between one idea and the next, and how these ideas develop your thesis.

Here are some ways of linking paragraphs.

To show simply that another idea is coming, use words such as “also,” “moreover” or “in       addition.”

To show that the next idea is the logical result of the previous one, use words such as “therefore,” “consequently,” “thus” or “as a result.”

To show that the next idea seems to go against the previous one, or is not its logical result, use words such as “however,” “nevertheless” or “still.”

To show you’ve come to your strongest point, use words such as “most importantly.”

To show you’ve come to a change in topic, use words such as “on the other hand.”

To show you’ve come to your final point, use words such as “finally.”


* Introduction

After you have come up with a thesis and developed it in the body of your paper, you can decide how to introduce your ideas to your reader.

The goals of an introduction are to:

  • get your reader’s attention/arouse your reader’s curiosity
  • provide any necessary background information before you state your thesis (often the last sentence of the introductory paragraph)
  • establish why you are writing the paper

Tip: You already know why you are writing, and who your reader is; now present that reason for writing to that reader.


Restating your thesis and summarizing the main points of your body should be part of your conclusion. However, also mention ways in which your work has been helpful in furthering the knowledge about your chosen art works/ period etc and how it has proved to be beneficial to you.

*Your final paper should be 10-12 pages, double spaced, Times New Roman, 12 pt (excluding the ‘annotated bibliography, works cited and/or bibliography and images)


Eg: Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

A website should be in italics:

Lundman, Susan. “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow,* . Accessed 15 Mar. 2009

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.


* Use spelling and grammar checkers!





Citing Sources

All sources referred to in the course of your research need to be recognized and any text or idea that enters your paper from another source needs to be documented. Failure to do so is called plagiarism.


Footnotes or Endnotes.  Art History papers do not usually use parenthetical citations—we use endnotes or footnotes. (Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page which has the citation. Endnotes are listed on a separate page at the end of the paper) Refer to the model given below. Other helpful sources are the MLA Handbook, Diana Hacker, Rules for Writers or a good website is



                                                1 Charles Harrison, Frances Frascina, and Gill Perry, Primitivism, Cubism, Abstraction (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993) 73.

                                                2 Harrison, et. al. 109.

                                                3 Christine Poggi, “Mallarmé, Picasso, and the Newspaper as Commodity,” The Yale Journal of Criticism 1 (Fall 1987): 134.

                                                4 Poggi 135.

                                                5 F.T. Marinetti, “The Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism,” Theories of Modern Art, Ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 285.




Chipp, Herschel B. Ed. Theories of Modern Art.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.


Harrison, Charles, Frances Frascina, and Paul Wood.  Primitivism, Cubism, Abstraction.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.


Poggi, Christine. “Mallarmé, Picasso, and the Newspaper as Commodity,” The Yale Journal of Criticism 1 (Fall 1987): 133-151.


Works Cited

However, if you prefer to use parenthetical references and a work cited list, that’s fine. Your references should always include the author and the page number. Example: Robert Herbert argues that the Monet’s paintings are not as spontaneous as they look (Herbert, 92). Then the full citation is given in the Works Cited list at the end of the text.


Herbert, Robert. “Method and Meaning in Monet,” Art in America 67 (September 1979),90-108.







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