Genetic Analysis of a Population of Organisms

GeneticsLabExercise:

GeneticAnalysisofaPopulationofOrganisms

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Overview

ThislabusestheClassicalGeneticsSimulatordevelopedbyBenAdamczyk,PhDBotany.TheClassicalGeneticsSimulator(CGS)isacomputersimulationthatallowsyoutoconductclassicalgeneticslaboratoryexperiments.Theprogramprovidesyouwithpopulationsoforganismswith unknownpatternsofinheritanceandgivesyouthetoolstodesignandperformexperimentsto discovertheseinheritancepatterns.Youwillbeabletomateorcrosstheunknownorganisms andanalyzeyourcrossesinwayssimilartothoseusedbypracticinggeneticistsandgenetics counselors.Thiswillgiveyoutheopportunitytodevelopthelogicandthoughtprocesses  neededtosolvereal-lifeproblemsingenetics.

 

 

Formanygeneticsproblems,youaregiventhecharacteristicsof thegenes.Forexample,youweretoassumethatcapitallettersweredominantand lowercaselettersorgenes,recessive.Inmanyoftheproblemsyouwerealsotoldifthetraits wereautosomalorsex-linked.Giventhisinformation,youcouldsolvetheproblemswithoutmuchdifficulty.However,whathappensifyouarepresentedwithaneworpreviouslyunknown mutationinapopulation?Howdoyoudeterminethegeneticcharacteristicsofthisnew mutation?Themechanismusedmostcommonlyispedigreeanalysis.

 

 

I.            Howdowegetstarted?

A.   WhatdowegetwhenweopenaproblemusingtheCGSprogram?

 

EachtimeyouopenanewprobleminCGS,youaregivenanewfield-caughtpopulationoffruitfliesortheoffspringofaself-fertilizedArabidopsisplant.Youwillusetheseorganismsto performaseriesofcrosses(ormatings)todeterminewhetherornottheirphenotypictraitsaregeneticallydetermined.

 

Iftheresultsofyourcrossesindicatethetrait(s)aregeneticallyinherited,youwillthen determinetheprobablemodeofinheritanceofeachphenotypictrait.

Forexample,is/arethetrait(s):

  • dominantorrecessive
  • sex-linkedorautosomal
  • theresultoflinkedorunlinkedgenes
  • theresultof2allelesofagivengeneormorethan2alleles

 

Youwillalsodeterminethegenotypesassociatedwitheachphenotypeandtheratiosof genotypesandphenotypesexpectedincrossesbetweenindividualsofgivengenotypes.

 

 

Refertothe“CGSQuickStartGuideandthehandouttitled,“SolvingGeneticsProblems”asyouworkontheproblems.Copiesoftheseare availableinlab.

 

 

 

  1. HowdoweusethePracticeProblems?

 

ThepracticeproblemsaredesignedtohelpyoulearnhowtousetheCGSprogram.Theyalso giveyouexperiencedevelopingstrategiesfordetermininginheritancepatterns.

 

Asnotedabove,thegoalsinthis(andall)problemsaretodetermine:

 

Inordertodeterminethemodeofinheritance,youwillworkinagroupof3to 4 studentsand keepadetailedrecordof:

  • thecrossesyoudid(includingdetailssuchassex,phenotype,vial/crossnumber,etc.)
  • Forexample,didyoudothecrossto eliminatethepossibilitythatthegenewassex-linked?
  • (For example,dotheresultsallowyoutostatethatthegenecannotbesex-linked,etc.?)

 

Youmustrecordallcrossesandresultsasnotedonthelogsheetsprovidedinthislab.

 

 

Completedlogsheetsmust beattachedtoyourfinalreportasanAppendix.

 

ClassicalGeneticsSimulatorRecordofcrossesforthePracticeproblem.

 

 

Vial#

 

Whatcrossdidyoudo?

 

Whatdidyouwanttolearnbydoingthecrossandwhat(ifany)assumptionsdidyoumake?

 

Whatdidtheresultsindicateaboutyourassumptionsandthegeneticsofthetrait?

       
       
       
       
       
       
       

 

  1. Whichresearchproblemsdoweinvestigate?

Aftercompletingthepracticeproblemsyouandyourpartner(s)willdeterminetheinheritancepatternsfortheproblems.

 

 

 

V.      Whatproblemsolvingstrategiesdoweuse?

Usingthedatasheetsprovided,answerthefollowingquestionsforEACHcrossyouperform.

Hints:Itwillhelpto:

 

Foreachcrossanswerthefollowingquestions.

 

  1. Whatcrossdidyouperform?Includedetailssuchassex,phenotype,vial/crossnumber,etc.

 

  1. Whatdidyouwanttolearnbydoingthecross?Inotherwords,whatinformationcouldtheproposedcrossprovide(e.g.aboutwhetheritisautosomalorsex-linked,etc.)?

 

  1. Whatdidtheresultsofyourcrossesindicateaboutyourassumptionsandthegeneticsofthetrait?
    1. Whatweretheactualresultsofyourcross?Includetheoriginaldata.[Youcansaveand

printtheseusingthe“Notes”functioninCGS.]

 

  1. Whatdotheseresultstellyouaboutthegenotypesoftheflies/plantsyouusedinthecrossaswellastheinheritancepatternofthetrait?[Besuretoindicatewhattheresultstellyouaswellaswhattheyleaveunanswered.]

 

  1. Howdoesyourhypothesischangeinlightoftheseresults?Doyouneedtodevelopanewhypothesis.

 

  1. Whatadditionalcrossesdoyouneedtoperformtosupportyournewhypothesis?

 

Useallofthisinformationtohelpyoudevelopastrategytosolvetheproblemsaswellas toassistyouinpreparingyourPowerPointpresentation.

 

 

ClassicalGeneticsSimulator-­‐ Recordofcrossesfortheproblemtitled:

  • Mendel Morgan McClintock

 

 

 

Vial#

 

Whatcrossdidyoudo?

 

Whatdidyouwanttolearnbydoingthecrossandwhat(ifany)assumptionsdidyoumake?

 

Whatdidtheresultsindicateaboutyourassumptionsandthegeneticsofthetrait?

       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       

 

ClassicalGeneticsSimulator-­‐ Recordofcrossesfortheproblemtitled:

  • Mendel Morgan McClintock

 

 

 

Vial#

 

Whatcrossdidyoudo?

 

Whatdidyouwanttolearnbydoingthecrossandwhat(ifany)assumptionsdidyoumake?

 

Whatdidtheresultsindicateaboutyourassumptionsandthegeneticsofthetrait?

       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       

 

 

VI.  Howdowecommunicateourfindings?

Scientists,bydefinition,doresearch.However,iftheywanttheresultsoftheirresearchtohavemeaningoutsidetheirownlabs,theymustcommunicatetheirfindingstoothers.Thiscanbedoneby publishingarticles,formallypresentingatalkataProfessionalSocietymeeting,orpresentingaposter ataProfessionalSocietymeeting.Discoveriesthatmaychangethewaywethinkaboutsciencecango totallyunrecognizedandunrewardediftheyarenotcommunicatedeffectivelytoothers.

 

 

A.Yourreportshouldcontainthefollowing.

 

Title

Thetitleofyourprojectshouldbedescriptiveandindicatetothereaderthe“reasons”fordoing theresearch(e.g.whatyouhopedtodiscover).Seetheexamplebelow.

 

Authors’/researchers’namesandtheiraffiliations(wheretheyarefrom)shouldfollow.

 

Forexample:

CalciumTransientsinHamsterandBovineOocytesandtheirRelationtoBullFertility

 

BenjaminM.andSmithS.(Theresearchers’names)

GeneticsLabBIOL380,Montclair State University(yourprofessional

affiliation)

 

 

 

Introduction

Theintroductioncontainsadescriptionofthehypothesis/problem/topicyouhavebeen researchingandastatementoftherationale(reason)fortheproject.Anydiscussionofthehistorythatleduptothecurrentprojectshouldbeverycondensedandlimitedtotheessentials requiredtounderstandtherationale.

 

Methods

Thissectionshouldcontainahighlycondensedversionofwhatyouwouldwriteforafullscientificpaper.Concentrationshouldbeonageneraldescriptionofthestrategyandlogicused togatherandanalyzethedata.(Seeexampleonnextpage.)

 

Results

Thissectionshouldbesubdividedintosectionsoneforeachmajorresearchproblem(e.g.

Mendel,MorganandMcClintock).Ineachsubsectionyoushouldsummarizethekeycrosses requiredtosolvetheresearchproblem.Thesignificanceofthesekeycrossesshouldbestated. Forexample,whatdotheseindicateaboutthemodeofinheritance.Whereneededusestatisticalevidencetosupporttheconclusions.Forexample,whenatleasttwologicalalternativeexplanationsexistusestatisticalanalysistotrytoeliminateoneofthealternatives.

AnyFiguresandTablesshouldappearinthissectioninsupportoftheresultsstatedinthetext.

Rememberallfiguresandtablesrequirefigure/tablenumbers,titlesandcaptions.

 

 

Discussion

TheDiscussionshouldhighlightthemainconclusionswhichcanbedrawnfromtheexperiment. TheDiscussionshouldalsoaddresswhatstillneedstobedonetoansweranyquestionswhich remain.Ifadditionalquestionsaroseasaresultofyourstudy,theseshouldbeincluded.

 

References(12point,bold,single-spaced)

Includeanyreferencesyoucited.RefertotheAcademicIntegrityAssignmentformore

informationonwhatshouldbeinthereferencelistandwhatformatthisinformationshouldtake.

 

Appendix(canbehandwritten)

Ataminimum,thisshouldcontainadescriptionordiagramofthelogicyouusedtocometothe

conclusionsyoustateinthediscussion.Itshouldalsoincludeyourlogsheets(or“Notes”pages fromCGS)foreach“ResearchProblem”.Keycrossesonthelogsshouldbehighlightedand annotated.

 

B.HowdowewritetheMethodssection?

 

Inthissectionthegeneralmethodsforsolvingallproblemsaresummarizedandpresentedtogether. Thefollowingisanillustrationofthebeginningofawell-writtenMethodssection.

 

Methods:

ThreeseparatesetsoffieldcaughtDrosophilawereexamined:Mendel,Morganand McClintock.Ineachexperiment,wefirstexaminedtheinheritanceofeachphenotypeseparately.

Todeterminewhichofthephenotypeswasdominantversusrecessive,wecrossed                  and

lookedfor        intheF1generation.Thisindicatedthat….

Todetermineifthephenotypesresultedfromautosomalversussex-linkedtraits,we…

 

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