Here is an edited abstract from a scientific journal (Chronobiology International, 2009)
Amber lenses to block blue light and improve sleep: a randomized trial.
All light is not equal: blue wavelengths are the most potent portion of the visible electromagnetic spectrum for circadian regulation. Therefore, blocking blue light could create a form of physiologic darkness. Because the timing and quantity of light and darkness both affect sleep, evening use of amber lenses to block blue light might affect sleep quality. Mood is also affected by light and sleep; therefore, mood might be affected by blue light blockade.
In this study, 20 adult volunteers were randomized to wear either blue-blocking (amber) or yellow-tinted (blocking ultraviolet only) safety glasses for 3 hours prior to sleep. Participants completed sleep diaries during a one-week baseline assessment and two weeks’ use of glasses. Outcome measures were subjective: change in overall sleep quality, total sleep time and positive/negative affect.
At the end of the study, results demonstrated that the mean subjective total sleep time for the test group was 20% higher than for the control group. Additionally, the amber lens group experienced significant improvement in sleep quality relative to the control group. Mood also improved significantly relative to controls. A replication with more detailed data on the subjects’ circadian baseline and objective outcome measures is warranted.
- Write a paragraph explaining the data collection step in the above study, including all relevant details. This means you should identify the sample, the test group,the control group, and explain in your own words how the experiment was conducted and what data was collected from the participants. (3 marks)
- What other data would you recommend the researchers collect from the participants, to rule out external factors? For example, we know from other research that alcohol consumption can affect sleep. Write a paragraph discussing two other factors (not alcohol!) that researchers could consider in relation to this research. (2 marks)
- Critically evaluate the research described in the abstract by writing a paragraph identifying and explaining two strengths and two weaknesses in the research design. (3 marks)
Demonstrate your graph reading skills by writing a short paragraph identifying some of the main trends shown on this colourful graph! (Make sure you are viewing the graph in colour, otherwise it will be difficult to interpret). (4 Marks)
There is a sale on used cars at Trusty Tim’s caryard.
- The original price of one car is $2245 and its now on sale for 10% off.
- The second car is originally priced at $3120 and is now 35% off.
- Calculate the sale price of each car — show your working. (2 marks)
- Write down a general formula for calculating the sale price (S) of a car in terms of the following variables: the original price (P) and the discount as a percentage (D)
(Hint: your answer will be S = ……………….) (1 mark)
Below is the number of homes in Launceston that have Foxtel Pay TV in each area code. Foxtel would like to survey viewers to find out their favourite music genre to improve their music channels. They would like to use a stratified sample of 200 people in Launceston to find out what their favourite music genre is. How many people do they need to survey from each postcode? (2 Marks)
|Number of households||1100||150||1750|
- Use backtracking and tracking forward to complete the table below. (1 mark)
- Write the equation that describes the relationship between start (s) and finish (f) for part a) above. (1 mark)
- Use backtracking to solve this formula (find n), showing all steps of your working: (1 mark)
The authors of the above graph claim that it shows that countries whose populations spend more time eating have less obesity.
- Doesthe graph above showthat there is a causal relationship between the amount of time spent eating and obesity rates? Why or why not? (2 marks)
- What are the four possible explanations for the correlation between the two variables in the graph? (2 marks)
- Write a paragraph to explain what other factors might explain the data represented on the graph? (2 marks)
Jane earns $1220 per fortnight. Her taxable deductions for the year come to $200, and she has been paying weekly PAYG tax instalments of $70
- What is Jane’s taxable income? (1 Mark)
- How much will Jane pay for the Medicare levy? (1 Mark)
- What is the total amount of money that Jane should pay to the Tax Office (do not forget to include both Tax and the Medicare levy)? (1 Mark)
- Does Jane owe money to the Tax Office or will she get a refund? How much? (1 Mark)
End of Asse