Research how masks help prevent COVID-19

The Council of Science Editors recommends the following formats for documenting references:

  1. Citation-Sequence System
  2. Name-Year System

CSE – Council of Science Editors (Citation/Sequence System)

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Inserted at the point of reference, superscripted numbers interact with sequentially numbered entries on a References list located at the end of the book or document.

Citing Sources within Your Paper (Using In-Text Numbering)

The CSE – Citation/Sequence in-text citation system is simple: It relies on numbers. Unlike the Name/Year system, no parenthetical information is required. All that’s needed is a superscripted number: a raised numeral located at the end of a clause or sentence identifying the content as outside source material.

The superscripted number flags the reader’s attention to a correspondingly numbered entry on a References list located at the end of a book or document.

CSE In-Text Numbering Rules

CSE In-Text Numbering rules are as follows:

  • In-text superscripted numbers appear after the punctuation and quotation marks at the end of a cited clause or sentence. There is no space between the punctuation and the numeral.
  • Source material located in the first part of a sentence separated by an em dash (two hyphens) is cited with the number placed before the dash begins.
  • Beginning with 1, each number follows in sequential order from page to page.
  • Superscripted numbers can be created in Microsoft® Word.

Citing Sources at the End of Your Paper

The end documentation in the CSE Citation/Sequence system is called References list. It is located at the end of a document or book and contains all the bibliographic information needed to find out more about each cited source within the text. Proper CSE documentation depends on the References page. Without it the in-text numbers would make little sense as they would no longer be pointing at any corresponding entries in the end documentation.

This page is a selective bibliography and does not include a full accounting of sources related to or consulted before you began writing your document, but only those actually cited. You may want to include sources that directly informed your thinking but aren’t explicitly cited in the text on a separate page entitled Additional References. Further reading suggestions or a fuller bibliography should be placed on yet another page entitled Additional Reading or Bibliography.

CSE References Formatting Rules

CSE References formatting rules call for the end documentation to begin on the last page of your document, not on a separate one. If your document is 6½ pages long, the References list should begin on page 7, directly below the concluding text of your document.

The References list formatting rules are as follows:

  • References is the most common title, however Cited References or Literature Cited are acceptable titles as well.
  • The title should be placed flush-left on the page and may appear Bold, Underlined, or capped in UPPERCASE letters.
  • Double space between title and first entry; single-space all other entries.
  • Set font-size one or two point (type) sizes smaller than the document text.
  • Page numbers are included when specific passages rather than entire sources are being cited and in the case of quotations.
  • Arrange entries numerically, following their initial in-text order of appearance. Each number should be followed by a period and one space.

Individual entries may be formatted in the following three ways:

  • No indentation. All lines in each entry flush-left.
  • Numbers flush-left. All lines in each entry indented one or two spaces.
  • Indent the first line of each entry five spaces from the left margin (the normal tab-button default space). Subsequent lines are flush-left.

CSE Bibliography Formatting Rules

CSE Bibliography formatting rules differ significantly from the References rules:

  • The title–Bibliography–replaces the word References at the top of a separate page.
  • Numbers are omitted altogether and entries are arranged alphabetically, last name first, instead of numerically.

CSE – Council of Science Editors (Name/Year System)

Inserted at the point of reference, an in-text parenthetical citation containing the author’s name and the date of publication interacts with the end documentation by pointing to a specific entry in the References List.

Citing Sources within Your Document

The CSE Name/Year in-text citation system follows a parenthetical format rather than the superscripted numbers found in the CSE Citation/Sequence system. It emphasizes authors’ names and dates of publication, both of which are important benchmarks denoting relevancy and validity in the social and the hard sciences.

In some cases, chapters, paragraphs and page numbers are required. Regardless of contents, the parenthetic citation should immediately follow the cited material within a sentence and before the period if it is at the end of the sentence. In the case of quoted material, the citation is placed between the final quotation mark and the period at the end of the sentence.

CSE Name/Year In-Text Formatting Rules

CSE Name/Year in-text formatting rules are as follows:

  • One space should separate the author’s name and the year of publication.
  • Page numbers are included only when part of a source or a direct quotation is cited. The abbreviation (p), without a period should precede the page number(s).
  • Place a comma and one space after the year of publication when including a page number.

Specific rules depend on whether part or all of a source is being cited as well as whether or not the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence where the citation occurs.

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