Importance of schools having less technology time

Importance of schools having less technology time and more outdoor time for kids in preschool through 12th-grade Literature Review

Even thoughoutdoor education has been in use for the past decades, emerging technologies have led to significant changes as most children depend on computers, tablets, iPhones, and other devices to play. Even though technology canhavenumerous benefits, it can lead to adverse effects among preschoolers, making outdoor time essential. However, people’s primary justification supporting the use of technology includes efficiency, speed, convenience, ease, and connectivity. In modern societies, all individuals, including children, using technology. Statistics indicate that children have contact with technology at a tender young age, with 83% of kids aged six months to 6 years using screens daily for learning, play, communication, and entertainment (Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development, 2016).Besides, arguments against the use of technology among toddlers and preschoolers have emerged, in which people argue it should be limited. Technology is easily addictive, and its most adverse effects on children are not apparent. At the same time, in their curiosity, toddlers and children cannot resist technology use, which poses a risk to their health and development. Thus, it is upon adults and caregivers to ensure children’s well-being by providing appropriate use of technology.Nevertheless, children in preschool through 12th grade benefit more in their behavioral, cognitive, and physical development when they spend less time in technology and more time in outdoor activities.

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Source Finding Analysis

In an attempt to find potential sources,various databaseswere considered, while others were excluded. Some of the resource materials include Google scholar, HubMed, and JSTOR. Google scholar offered free articles from different fields, including science and technology, which provided me with a lot of material related to my research topic. PubMed offered health-related information useful in understanding the adverse effects of more technology on children. JSTOR offered many journals, including ones related to child health, mainly that focused on the importance of outdoor activities to children. Most importantto note, I used various keywords to search for resources. Thekey words include technology, early childhood, preschool, outdoor activities.Since some of the keywords, such as technology and outdoor activities, did not lead to specific information required in the paper, it was necessary to combine them with other words. On the other hand, the use of Wikipedia and blogswas unnecessary because they do not offer reliable sources of information.

To select adequate resourcesto use in this project, I evaluated the information while checking whetherthey were published in scholarlyjournals. However, determine the objective of each source before selecting it was necessary. Even though the evaluation process might seem cumbersome, going through theabstract and mythology sections allowed me to choose various resources that focus on addressing the research question. Through the keywords and themes addressed in eacharticle, I determined whether the sources were appropriate for

my project’s scope.


The best approach is to ensure informed consent or recognize the authors through citations to comply with ethicaland legal restrictions while using published, confidential and proprietary information. In ourscenario, APA citation was vital in ensuring that it uses the information I acquired for the project without violating ethical and legal restrictions. Nevertheless, recognizingthe author of each sourceand citing any data or statistics was ethical.




As depicted from the existingliterature review, it is evident that various researchershave different views on whether technology or outdoor activitieswill be essential in ensuringpositiveoutcomes among preschoolers. One of the main themesportrayed in the literature review is thatchildren in preschoolthrough grade 12 gains more behavioral, cognitive, and physical benefits when they rely more on outdoor activities than technology. According to Lissak(2018), 20-30% of children in Britainexperience sleep problems, among other psychological and physiologicalissues, because they spend a lot of time on the screen. From this point of view, it is evident that children should spend most of their time playing outdoor for their psychological benefits. Contrary, López, Contreras & Cassidy (2015)claims the use of technology among children by claiming that the children should not be restricted from using technology to ensure adequate representation of all family (Fiskum & Jacobsen, 2015). Due to the benefitsassociated with outdoor activities among children, limiting the use of technology is essential. For instance, focusing on outdooreducationis associated with positive motor and verbal agitation among children, including adequate communication skills and physicalactivities(Fiskum & Jacobsen, 2015).

In his study, Coyle(2017) argues that the use of digital technology, which allows preschoolers through 12thgrade to play games, facilitate healthy, wholesome, and effective outdoor experiences.Based on this perception, the author suggests that children who spent time on screens can participate in outdoor activitieswithout numerous challenges. On the other hand, Slutsky & DeShetler (2016) disagree with Coyle claiming that children spend most of their eight hours on the screens rather than engaging in useful activities, such as doing assignments, playing outside, and sleeping. Withouta doubt, failure to get enough sleep and participate actively in-class activities can lead to psychological problems among children. Furthermore, numerous researchers agree that the outdoor environmentisvaluable for young children’s development because it improves their sensory, motor, social, and intellectual skills(Yilmaz, 2016).

According to Yıldırım & Özyılmaz (2017), outdoor education is crucial among preschoolers through the 12thgrade because it allows them to have a wider perspective concerning things. On theother hand, Zomer & Kay (2016)disagree with this argument claiming that technology can improve children’s learning. From this point of view, the authors supporttechnology because it allows them to connect with their classmates and other individuals. Nevertheless, parents and teachers should determine what children are doing on the screen since computers have become a new playground, influencing their desire to connect with others(Cohen, 2013).


Based on the current literature review, the most interesting information I found is that the period between preschool and grade 12 is critical to psychological development, which defines future behavior, cognitive skills, and positive development. According to Erickson’s psychosocial development theory, the period is crucial to developing trust, autonomy, identity, and perseverance. Freud’s development theory proves that conflicts in each development stage influence the child’s behavior and personality. Behavioral approaches provide that learning in early childhood occurs through association and reinforcement. Piaget’s theory offers children within the 0-11 years old develop from sensory perception and motor activities to language and comprehension of concrete ideas (Morin, 2020). From a certain point of view, theresearch ideas are relevant to my discipline because theyaddress a critical age of human development with lifetime effects on behavior, personality, physical and cognition abilities.


For about a decade, the use of technology among preschoolers through 12thgrade has raised some significant social, physical, and cognitive development issues. As depicted from the existing literature review, it is evident that technology has numerous benefits, but it can be addictive, leading to adverse effects among children. Among preschoolers through 12thgrade, engaging in outdoor activitiesis vital for their cognitive, physical, and social development. Nevertheless, adults and caregivers should play a significant role in determining and regulating the use of technology for preschoolers through 12th grade for their advantage.




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