Piaget and the Development of Reasoning

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Piaget and the Development of Reasoning

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Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who became intrigued the way children reasoned their wrong answers to the questions that required logical thinking. He theorized that their wrong answers were somehow related to important differences between the way children and adults think. Piaget was the first was the first psychologist to systematically conduct a study of cognitive development, specifically in children. His study consisted of theories on child cognitive development, a series of tests to study different cognitive abilities, and observational studies of cognition in children. Before Piaget’s experiment, it was assumed by the general public that children are not as competent as adults when it comes to the thought process. Ultimately, Piaget was able to prove that children are able to think in different ways comparable to adults.

The goal of Piaget’s theory was to explain the processes and mechanisms experienced through childhood, from the age of an infant’s to a child’s, later to develop into an individual adult who can later be capable of reasoning and thinking, using hypotheses. Piaget theorized that children first construct an understanding of the world and their setting around them, and then experience discrepancies between what their actually discover and experience in their environment and the idea of what they already know. This was Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, as it was a progressive re-organization of mental processes generated from taking in environmental experiences and biological maturation.

Piaget’s cognitive theory was composed of three basic components: schemas, adaptation processes that enable the transition from one stage to another, and the four stages of development. Schemas, as Piaget defined, is “a cohesive, repeatable action sequence possessing component actions that are tightly interconnected and governed by a core meaning”. Schemas are merely basic building blocks of intelligent behavior, or a way or organizing knowledge. Adaptation processes happen through assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium. Assimilation is the process of taking in new information into our already existing schemas. It is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation. Accommodation is another part of adaptation that involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information. This happens when the existing schema does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation. Equilibrium is the force that moves development along, as Piaget thought that cognitive development does not progress at a steady rate, but more in “leaps and bounds”. Equilibrium happens when a child’s schema works with new information through assimilation. Unpleasant states of disequilibrium happen when new information is unable to fit into an existing schema, which is referred to as assimilation. Piaget’s famous four stages of development is sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. The sensorimotor stage occurs from birth to about age 2. At this stage, our understanding is limited to direct contact, which includes sucking, touching, listening, and looking. The preoperational stage occurs from about age 2 to age 7. At this stage, we develop the ability to use symbols. We are learning how to count, but we do not understand what the numbers mean. The concrete operational stage occurs from age 7 to age 12. At this stage, our reasoning abilities are more developed. We can now understand numbers, size, causation, and speed. The operational stage occurs after the about the age of 12. At this stage, we are now capable of abstract thinking. We can talk about concepts, come to conclusions based on general principles, and use rules to solve abstract problems.

From this assignment, I learned that although children do not process complex information at such a young age, their minds are forming in a complex and systematic way. It was interesting to learn how the development of reasoning in children occur through the same stages, more or less. Learning about Piaget’s stages of reasoning development made me more aware of how fragile and complex the shaping of a young child’s mind is.

10 facts:

1.1, Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, studied the development of the mind – specifically how we learn to reason.

2.2. The Piaget stages of development describes the stages of normal intellectual development from infancy through adulthood.

3.3. Piaget set up a laboratory where gave children of different ages problems to solve.

4.4. After years of testing, Piaget concluded that children go through a natural process as they develop their ability to reason.

5.5. The first stage is the sensorimotor stage, which is from birth to about age 2. At this stage, our understanding is limited to direct contact, which includes sucking, touching, listening, and looking.

6.6. The second stage is the preoperational stage, which is from about age 2 to age 7. At this stage, we develop the ability to use symbols. We are learning how to count, but we do not understand what the numbers mean.

7.7. The third stage is the concrete operational stage, which is about from age 7 to age 12. At this stage, our reasoning abilities are more developed. We can now understand numbers, size, causation, and speed.

8.8. The fourth stage is the formal operational stage, which is after the about the age of 12. At this stage, we are now capable of abstract thinking. We can talk about concepts, come to conclusions based on general principles, and use rules to solve abstract problems.

9.9. Assimilation is the process of taking in new information into our already existing schemas.

110. Accommodation is another part of adaptation that involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information.

Support video/audio visual:

Piaget’s stages of cognitive development | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy (Links to an external site.)Piaget's stages of cognitive development | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy

Presentation video: Dear Class, please use CANVAS for your recording, not YouTube.

Presentation video: Dear Class, Below is a sample of what should be in your presentation video. In the top of this text box is a white square with an arrow inside (record/upload Media). Click there and record your video. It will be easier, more versatile, and accessible.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGg00C0CbiY (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

3 multiple choice questions:

1.1. What is the correct order of Piaget stages of development?

2. A. sensoriomotor, concrete operational, preoperational, formal operational

3. B. formal operational, concrete operational, preoperational, sensorimotor

4. C. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

5. D. preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor

6.2. At what stage are you able to think abstractly?

7. A. sensorimotor stage

8. B. preoperational stage

9. C. concrete operational stage

10. D. formal operational stage

11.3. What were the test subjects of Piaget’s experiment?

12. A. rats

13. B. children

14. C. dogs

15. D. adults

1 essay/discussion questions:

Do you agree with Piaget’s stages of development in this current day? Why or why not? Provide examples.

(Answers to multiple choice questions emailed to Prof. Williams, williamsj@smccd.edu. Answers to essay question not necessary if they express opinions)

Bibliography/references:

Hello Class,

This is how to make a citation for a website in MLA 8 format.

You will need the following pieces of information:

.The author’s name
.The title of the article or page
.The title of the website
*.The name of the publisher
.The date the page or site was published
*.The URL

It is helpful to make the URL clickable so that readers can directly access the source themselves.

Examples of website citations in MLA 8

White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016,www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2&c=hpstream.

How to cite a website with no author in MLA 8:
Sometimes, websites do not clearly state who wrote the information on the page. When no author is listed, omit the author information from the citation. Start the citation with the title.

Example of a citation for a website without an author in MLA 8:

“Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts.

How to cite a website when there is no page title:

When citing a web page that does not include a formal title, it is acceptable to include a description of the page. Do not place the description in italics or in quotation marks. Follow the description with the name of the website.

Example of a website citation in MLA 8 when there is no page title in MLA 8:

General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm

1.

  • Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, 11e (James M. Henslin, 2014, 1012, 2010 by Pearson Education)

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