J. Piaget provided evidence for the progression and integration of motor schemas toward/into internalized mental “operations” (thinking). Describe how other types of ‘play’ give rise to other forms of ‘mental operations,’ for example, psychologically defined as ‘emotional intelligence,’ ‘perceptual intelligence,’ and/or ‘creativity.’ What is the scientific evidence that a lack of observed ‘play behaviors,’ generally defined, portends psychological dysfunction? What is the developmental relationship between species which are said to be neotenic (neoteny: “preserving youth”) and the role of ‘play’?

QUESTION

Discussion Questions (Select one):

Please make one substantive post (answer) and one substantive and thoughtful reply per week for a total of at least TWO posts

  1. J. Piaget provided evidence for the progression and integration of motor schemas toward/into internalized mental “operations” (thinking). Describe how other types of ‘play’ give rise to other forms of ‘mental operations,’ for example, psychologically defined as ‘emotional intelligence,’ ‘perceptual intelligence,’ and/or ‘creativity.’
  2. What is the scientific evidence that a lack of observed ‘play behaviors,’ generally defined, portends psychological dysfunction?
  3. What is the developmental relationship between species which are said to be neotenic (neoteny: “preserving youth”) and the role of ‘play’?
  4. Apply the arguments and positions of one major theory of play to everyday observations you are familiar with.
  5. What forms of play might replace traditional customs or behaviors that are ‘play,’ in an increasingly anonymous society where virtual reality becomes ubiquitous and social-physical contact is less frequent?
  6. When work is play, what attributes characterizes it as ‘play’? (name and discuss at least three)

Discussion Protocol:

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J. Piaget provided evidence for the progression and integration of motor schemas toward/into internalized mental “operations” (thinking). Describe how other types of ‘play’ give rise to other forms of ‘mental operations,’ for example, psychologically defined as ‘emotional intelligence,’ ‘perceptual intelligence,’ and/or ‘creativity.’ What is the scientific evidence that a lack of observed ‘play behaviors,’ generally defined, portends psychological dysfunction? What is the developmental relationship between species which are said to be neotenic (neoteny: “preserving youth”) and the role of ‘play’?
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  2. A range of 300-500 (300 minimum) words of actual content excluding subject line/title, very short quotes, and links. Please, make use of at least two references (one must be outside our textbook) in each post. Please reference in APA Style: cite author and reference year within the text of the post (add the page number if it is a direct quote), and cite the full reference at the end of the post.
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  4. Your initial response should be posted by Wednesday at midnight (Pacific Time), and your response to another student or the instructor should be posted by Saturday (Pacific Time).
  5. ANSWER

  6.  The Role of Play in the Development of Different Mental Operations

    Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development highlights the importance of play in the progression and integration of motor schemas into internalized mental operations. However, play also plays a crucial role in the development of other forms of mental operations, such as emotional intelligence, perceptual intelligence, and creativity. This discussion explores how different types of play give rise to these forms of mental operations, and the scientific evidence supporting the link between a lack of observed play behaviors and psychological dysfunction.

    Play and Emotional Intelligence

    Play provides children with opportunities to explore and understand their emotions, as well as those of others. Through various forms of play, such as pretend play, children learn to recognize and regulate their emotions, develop empathy, and understand social cues. For example, engaging in role-playing scenarios allows children to step into different roles and perspectives, enhancing their emotional understanding and social skills (Goncu & Gaskins, 2007). This development of emotional intelligence through play contributes to better emotional regulation and interpersonal relationships in adulthood.

    Play and Perceptual Intelligence

    Perceptual intelligence involves the ability to interpret and make sense of sensory information. Play provides a rich sensory environment that stimulates perceptual exploration and learning. Activities like building with blocks, playing with puzzles, and engaging in sensory play enable children to develop spatial awareness, fine motor skills, and problem-solving abilities. Through play, children learn to perceive and manipulate their environment, enhancing their perceptual intelligence (Bjorklund & Pellegrini, 2010).

    Play and Creativity

    Play is closely intertwined with creativity, as it encourages imagination, innovation, and flexible thinking. Pretend play, art activities, and open-ended play scenarios allow children to express their ideas, explore possibilities, and engage in divergent thinking. Playful experiences foster the development of creative thinking skills, such as generating multiple solutions, thinking outside the box, and adapting to new situations. These skills are valuable not only in artistic pursuits but also in problem-solving and adapting to new challenges throughout life (Russ, 2003).

    Scientific Evidence of the Link between Lack of Play and Psychological Dysfunction:

    Research consistently highlights the negative impact of limited play experiences on psychological well-being. Play deprivation or a lack of play opportunities has been associated with increased levels of stress, anxiety, aggression, and difficulties in social interactions (Gray, 2011). Studies have shown that children who engage in less play exhibit poorer cognitive, emotional, and social development (Pellegrini & Smith, 1998). Furthermore, a lack of play has been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and reduced creativity in both children and adults (Fisher, 2012).

    Conclusion

    While Piaget’s theory emphasized the integration of motor schemas into internalized mental operations through play, other forms of mental operations, including emotional intelligence, perceptual intelligence, and creativity, also emerge through different types of play. The evidence suggests that a lack of play behaviors can contribute to psychological dysfunction. Therefore, promoting and supporting diverse play experiences is crucial for fostering healthy cognitive, emotional, and social development in individuals of all ages.

    References

    Bjorklund, D. F., & Pellegrini, A. D. (2010). Evolutionary perspectives on play: An introduction. In D. F. Bjorklund & A. D. Pellegrini (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the development of play (pp. 3-13). Oxford University Press.

    Fisher, K. R. (2012). Moving play and children’s mental health. American Journal of Play, 4(4), 473-498.

    Goncu, A., & Gaskins, S. (2007). Play and development: Cultural-historical perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Gray, P. (2011). The decline of play and the rise of psychopathology in children and adolescents. American Journal of Play, 3(4), 443-463.

    Pellegrini, A. D., & Smith, P. K. (1998). Physical activity play: The nature and function of a neglected aspect of play. Child Development, 69(3), 577-598.

    Russ, S. W. (2003). Play and creativity: Developmental issues. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(3), 291-306.

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