# Introduction Why was the lab done? What is the concept or theory being tested? You should review relevant literature regarding the concept or theory being tested. Need to utilize information from the textbook, readings, lecture, and outside sources as relevant. This is important, and it must be done Purpose What is the purpose of the lab test or experience? How does the test or experience relate back to the theory or concept being explored? Hypothesis

## QUESTION

Measurement and Evaluation

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Introduction Why was the lab done? What is the concept or theory being tested? You should review relevant literature regarding the concept or theory being tested. Need to utilize information from the textbook, readings, lecture, and outside sources as relevant. This is important, and it must be done Purpose What is the purpose of the lab test or experience? How does the test or experience relate back to the theory or concept being explored? Hypothesis
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Handgrip Strength and Validation Lab

Overview (course objective):

This semester project aims to cover both measurement of strength and utilization of statistical analysis from a range of statistical tests and creation of variable some additional variables using formulas.

Overview (lab objective):

We have several devices that each measure handgrip strength in kilograms. We do not know the state of the two older devices, but the Jamar Plus+ was recently purchased and came calibrated from the manufacturer. It will serve as our gold standard. We will test all three devices concurrently in a group of undergraduate students and determine the level of both reliability and validity of the older devices.

Protocol for conducting tests of handgrip strength

1.Adjust the dynamometer handgrip position before each attempt on the three different handgrip dynamometers

2.Position your arm in a 90 degree angle (with your upper arm down at your side and your forearm parallel to the ground)

3.Reset or prep the device for recording

4.Squeeze and hold with a quick, maximum effort for 2 seconds using your dominant hand.

5.Allow a short rest between trials

Recording Data:

Patterson

• Trial 1: ____42_____kg
• Trial 2: ____33_____kg
• Trial 3: _____40____kg

TEC

• Trial 1: ____44_____kg
• Trial 2: ____35_____kg
• Trial 3: _____40____kg

Plus+

• Trial 1: ___27.4______kg
• Trial 2: ____25.3_____kg
• Trial 3: ____25.2_____kg

Upload InBody body composition variables (when available):
Skeletal Muscle Mass, Dominant arm weight (Under segmental lean analysis)

Preparing the lab report:

Outline of Results

Include a description and interpretation of each statistic conducted (what is the statistic that was calculated and what does it mean in relation to our research question).

Write a lab report: Include a cover page, the below headings, and references section:

Write research paper manuscript: including the above data using the following headings:

Background/Objectives

Introduction – Describe in your own words the purpose of the lab and the research question.

Methods – Provide sufficient detail such that someone could replicate the lab and confirm the

results. Include the protocols for handgrip strength and any participant characteristics.

Results – Include the tables and figures described above as well as interpretations.

Discussion – What is the main finding? How does it address the research question?

LAB FORMAT

Cover Page will include

Class Title

Title of Lab

(Lab write-up must have a descriptive title)

Name

Start New page

Introduction

Why was the lab done? What is the concept or theory being tested?

You should review relevant literature regarding the concept or theory being tested.

Need to utilize information from the textbook, readings, lecture, and outside sources as relevant. This is important, and it must be done

Purpose

What is the purpose of the lab test or experience?

How does the test or experience relate back to the theory or concept being explored?

Hypothesis

What do you expect to happen based on theory and previous research?

Need to utilize information from the textbook, readings, lecture, and outside sources as relevant.

Null Hypothesis and Alternate Hypotheses should be stated

Procedure

These are step by step instructions on how to do, what is needed to do the experiment.

This section describes in logical order how the lab was done.

This is written in clear and concise language.

If done well, the reader will be able to replicate the lab or experiment based on the description provide.

Results

This section will usually include data Tables and perhaps Graphs.

This section will present the raw data and any statistical calculations that are done.

Discussion

An analysis of the results from the lab is in this section.

Relate the results to back to previous literature and theory from textbook or other sources.

How do the data and results presented reflect or replicate what has previously been reported?

Was the purpose of the lab met and was the hypothesis proven or disproven?

### Measurement and Evaluation – Handgrip Strength and Validation Lab

Cover Page:

Class Title: Measurement and Evaluation

Title of Lab: Handgrip Strength and Validation Lab

### Introduction

The purpose of this lab is to assess the reliability and validity of handgrip strength measurements using different handgrip dynamometers. Handgrip strength is an important indicator of upper body strength and overall physical fitness. By comparing the measurements obtained from three different devices, namely Patterson, TEC, and Plus+, we aim to determine the reliability and validity of the older devices compared to the recently purchased Jamar Plus+, which serves as the gold standard. This lab focuses on measuring handgrip strength and utilizing statistical analysis to evaluate the results.

### Purpose

The purpose of this lab is to examine the reliability and validity of handgrip strength measurements obtained from different dynamometers. This assessment will provide insights into the accuracy and consistency of the older devices compared to the Jamar Plus+ (Hamilton et al., 1992). By understanding the reliability and validity of these devices, we can make informed decisions about their use in future research or clinical settings.

### Hypothesis

Based on previous research and the assumption that the Jamar Plus+ is calibrated and accurate, we hypothesize that the handgrip strength measurements obtained from the Patterson and TEC devices will show lower reliability and validity compared to the Jamar Plus+.

Null Hypothesis: There will be no significant difference in the handgrip strength measurements obtained from the three devices.

Alternate Hypothesis: The handgrip strength measurements obtained from the older devices (Patterson and TEC) will significantly differ from those obtained from the Jamar Plus+ (Cooper et al., 2021).

### Procedure

Adjust the dynamometer handgrip position before each attempt on the three different handgrip dynamometers.

Reset or prep the device for recording.

Squeeze and hold with a quick, maximum effort for 2 seconds using your dominant hand.

Allow a short rest between trials.

### Results

Table 1: Handgrip Strength Measurements (in kilograms)

|            | Trial 1 | Trial 2 | Trial 3 |

|————|———|———|———|

| Patterson  |    42   |    33   |    40   |

| TEC        |    44   |    35   |    40   |

| Jamar Plus+ |   27.4  |   25.3  |   25.2  |

### Discussion

The main finding of this lab is that the handgrip strength measurements obtained from the Patterson and TEC devices show considerable variation compared to the Jamar Plus+. These variations suggest lower reliability and validity of the older devices (Shechtman et al., 2004). The measurements obtained from the Jamar Plus+ were consistently lower, indicating potential calibration differences. This finding supports our hypothesis that the older devices may exhibit lower reliability and validity compared to the newer Jamar Plus+.

The results of this lab align with previous research indicating that the accuracy and precision of handgrip dynamometers may vary. It is crucial to use validated and calibrated devices to ensure accurate measurements in research and clinical settings. The discrepancies observed in this lab highlight the need for regular calibration and validation of handgrip dynamometers to ensure reliable results.

In conclusion, this lab provides evidence suggesting that the older devices, Patterson and TEC, may have lower reliability and validity compared to the recently purchased Jamar Plus+. Researchers and practitioners should consider using validated and calibrated devices to obtain accurate handgrip strength measurements. Further research is warranted to explore the potential sources of variation and ways to enhance the reliability and validity of handgrip dynamometers.

### References

Cooper, R., Lessof, C., Wong, A., & Hardy, R. (2021). The impact of variation in the device used to measure grip strength on the identification of low muscle strength: Findings from a randomised cross-over study. The Impact of Variation in the Device Used to Measure Grip Strength on the Identification of Low Muscle Strength: Findings From a Randomised Cross-over Study, 06(04), 225–230. https://doi.org/10.22540/jfsf-06-225

Hamilton, G., McDonald, C., & Chenier, T. C. (1992). Measurement of Grip Strength: Validity and Reliability of the Sphygmomanometer and Jamar Grip Dynamometer. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 16(5), 215–219. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1992.16.5.215

Shechtman, O., Gestewitz, L., & Kimble, C. (2004). Reliability and Validity of the DynEx Dynamometer. Journal of Hand Therapy, 18(3), 339–347. https://doi.org/10.1197/j.jht.2005.04.002

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