# In this unit, you learned about the different biases in decision-making. For this assignment, you will compose an essay that examines these biases. In your essay, briefly describe each of the three general heuristics covered in Chapter 3 in the textbook. Then, pick one or more of the three heuristics, and describe an original decision-making scenario that conveys how the heuristic and associated bias(es) played a part in the outcome. Explain how the biases could have been overcome to improve the decision.

## QUESTION

Note: Must have access to class book for this assignment! The book is cited below and I have also attached the study guide:

Bazerman, M. H., & Moore, D. A. (2013). Judgment in managerial decision making (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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In this unit, you learned about the different biases in decision-making. For this assignment, you will compose an essay that examines these biases. In your essay, briefly describe each of the three general heuristics covered in Chapter 3 in the textbook. Then, pick one or more of the three heuristics, and describe an original decision-making scenario that conveys how the heuristic and associated bias(es) played a part in the outcome. Explain how the biases could have been overcome to improve the decision.
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In this unit, you learned about the different biases in decision-making. For this assignment, you will compose an essay that examines these biases. In your essay, briefly describe each of the three general heuristics covered in Chapter 3 in the textbook. Then, pick one or more of the three heuristics, and describe an original decision-making scenario that conveys how the heuristic and associated bias(es) played a part in the outcome. Explain how the biases could have been overcome to improve the decision.

This scenario can be real or imagined, and it can be about personal or business decision-making events. You should not use the scenarios or examples given in the textbook. Be sure to use what you have learned about the heuristics and biases to create your scenario.

In your essay, include both an introductory paragraph with a topic sentence and a conclusion. Your essay must be a minimum of three pages in length, and it must include at least two references, one of which must be the textbook and one of which must be another academic source. Any information from a source must be cited and referenced in APA format.

### Introduction

In the realm of decision-making, biases often arise due to the reliance on heuristics, which are mental shortcuts used to simplify complex decision processes. This essay aims to examine the three general heuristics discussed in Chapter 3 of the textbook “Judgment in Managerial Decision Making” by Bazerman and Moore (2013). Furthermore, it will present an original decision-making scenario illustrating how one of these heuristics, along with its associated bias(es), influenced the outcome. The essay will then propose strategies to overcome these biases for improved decision-making.

### Availability Heuristic

The availability heuristic refers to the tendency of individuals to rely on immediate examples or instances that come to mind when evaluating the likelihood or frequency of an event. It leads to the assumption that easily recalled information accurately represents the overall probability of an event (Yang et al., 2020). This heuristic can lead to biases when vivid or memorable events dominate decision-making, regardless of their actual statistical occurrence.

### Representativeness Heuristic

The representativeness heuristic involves judging the probability or category membership of an event based on how well it resembles a prototype or existing mental category. Individuals often make judgments based on perceived similarity, overlooking relevant base rates or statistical information. This heuristic can lead to biases when individuals make decisions solely based on similarity without considering the underlying probabilities.

### Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic

The anchoring and adjustment heuristic occurs when individuals make estimates or judgments by starting from an initial anchor and then adjusting their response incrementally. The initial anchor, even if arbitrary or unrelated, influences subsequent judgments. This heuristic can lead to biases when the initial anchor is not appropriately adjusted, resulting in insufficient adjustment and inaccurate final judgments (Peña & Mejía, 2020).

### Original Decision-Making Scenario

Imagine a company, ABC Manufacturing, planning to introduce a new product line of environmentally friendly household cleaners. The marketing team, led by Sarah, is tasked with estimating the potential market demand for these cleaners. Sarah decides to rely on the representativeness heuristic and uses a mental prototype of previous successful product launches to make her estimate. She recalls the company’s previous eco-friendly product that gained significant market share quickly.

As a result, Sarah overestimates the potential demand for the new cleaners without considering the specific market conditions and competition. She assumes that the new product will be as successful as the previous one, neglecting the fact that consumers’ preferences and market dynamics may have changed. This biased judgment based on representativeness heuristic leads to an inflated estimate of market demand.

### Overcoming Biases

To overcome the biases associated with the representativeness heuristic in this scenario, Sarah and the marketing team could implement the following strategies:

Seek diverse perspectives: Encourage the team to gather input from individuals with varied backgrounds and experiences. This would help to challenge and broaden the mental prototype and prevent overreliance on previous successes.

Conduct market research: Conduct thorough market research to gather data on current consumer preferences, competitor analysis, and market trends (Hendricks, 2018). This would provide a more accurate understanding of the potential demand for the new product and reduce the reliance on mental prototypes.

Consider base rates: Incorporate statistical data and objective information about the market to complement the representativeness heuristic. Analyze historical data, market surveys, and other relevant sources to gain a more comprehensive perspective on the potential demand.

### Conclusion

Biases in decision-making often emerge due to the utilization of heuristics, which are cognitive shortcuts employed to simplify complex decision processes. The availability heuristic, representativeness heuristic, and anchoring and adjustment heuristic are three general heuristics that influence decision outcomes. By recognizing the biases associated with these heuristics and implementing strategies to overcome them, decision-makers can improve their decision quality. In the scenario presented, the representativeness heuristic led to an overestimation of market demand. However, through diverse perspectives, market research, and consideration of base rates, biases could be overcome, resulting in more informed decision-making.

### References

Hendricks, L. A. (2018). Women also Snowboard: Overcoming Bias in Captioning Models. http://openaccess.thecvf.com/content_ECCV_2018/html/Lisa_Anne_Hendricks_Women_also_Snowboard_ECCV_2018_paper.html

Peña, V. S., & Mejía, A. G. (2020). Effect of heuristic anchoring and adjustment, and optimism bias, in stock market forecasts. Revista Finanzas Y Política Económica. https://doi.org/10.14718/revfinanzpolitecon.2019.11.2.10

Yang, B., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Yu, T., Yao, W., Shu, H., Zeng, F., & Sun, L. (2020). Comprehensive overview of meta-heuristic algorithm applications on PV cell parameter identification. Energy Conversion and Management, 208, 112595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112595

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