250 words and 1 reference for support is also the minimal for each numbered paragraph below; this does not mean by meeting the minimal expectation that you will be awarded an “A.” This is a Master’s Degree program and course and the award of maximum credit is reserved only for those posts that are exemplary!


250 words and 1 reference for support is also the minimal for each numbered paragraph below; this does not mean by meeting the minimal expectation that you will be awarded an “A.” This is a Master’s Degree program and course and the award of maximum credit is reserved only for those posts that are exemplary!

Also the content of the Forum Assignment will often ask the student to take a position on a particular topic. However, this is not a strict opinion paper in which you the student can just make a statement of what you think or what your experiences are on a topic. Instead, the student needs to support their opinion or experiences with qualifying research from academic source. APA 6th edition citations and references must be used always!

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
250 words and 1 reference for support is also the minimal for each numbered paragraph below; this does not mean by meeting the minimal expectation that you will be awarded an “A.” This is a Master’s Degree program and course and the award of maximum credit is reserved only for those posts that are exemplary!
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

Hence, do not include statements such as great work, or excellent post. Try to include information that is challenging and respectful and that will stimulate debate. Additionally, please remember that simply posting the main post and a student colleague response post does not end the forum; the discussion forum should be dialogue that is continual until the Sunday deadline. Also, be mindful of including references and citations whenever citing facts to support your position.


It is almost difficult to envision a time period where cocaine was not illegal, yet before 1945, its production in small-scale remained legal. However, by 1947, smuggling from Peru began with corridors ranging from Chile, Cuba, Brazil, and Argentina rose to link to other Latin American cities (Gootenberg, 2007). The eastern-central town of Huanuco Peru is known as the cradle of cocaine, within the same time, cocaine- making became undoable due to the closedown of the Huanuco factory. From 1947-1949, a time when the UN came together came to the decision that cocaine needed to be banned and the cultivation, as well as the chewing of native coca, had to be significantly reduced. Peru took the initiative and barred cocaine in its entirety by issuing several punitive drug control methods. Bolivia, on the other hand, did not take this same approach and instead took another decade to comply with the campaign goals (Gootenberg, 2007). In 1949, U.S. law enforcement officials made the first international drug bust when they captured members of the Balarezo gang in New York City, a gang known to have solid connections to Peruvian dealers. Moving on to the 1950s, traffickers in Chile and Cuba played a major role in transporting illicit cocaine shipments from South America to the United States, and other Latin American nations followed in later decades. Cuban couriers also took an active role by Cuban labs preparing cocaine for distribution in the U.S. The rest of the 1950s took the spotlight off of Peru as the cocaine-making, while transforming regular crude cocaine into a new product known as the cocaine paste. By 1959, it was Chile that accounted for half the cocaine seizures at the U.S. Borders.


After 1960, it is reported that more cocaine moved via Mexico, as Chileans evolved into organized international drug rings (Gootenberg, 2007). American mafias also were reported to cease domestic markets to Cuba cocaine retailers. Gootenberg’s account of cocaine’s resurgence is composed of accounts around the world such as that of trafficker Alfredo Bello a Brazilian owner of several gaming houses and dens which was arrest for cocaine possession in 1961. In of it itself, every nation was facing exponential growth in drug smuggling in or out of their nation. For example, pressures on Bolivia came to a head after the 1961 Blanca Ibáñez fiasco, Bolivian cocaine seizures at U.S. borders, and the 1961 FBN survey of cocaine routing, which dramatized the new range of inter-American cocaine merchants (Gootenberg,2007). By the mids-1960s the Ades-Mexican routes were known as the main supply route for cocaine aimed at the underbelly of the United States and was also an introduction to the Sinaloan drug lords of the 80s. By the late 1960s, airport arrests show opportunistic Argentines tapping drug flights to Miami and Europe.

Question 2

The Mexican border is approximately 1,954 miles long, of which 700 miles have fencing barriers and another 300 has anti-vehicle barriers, leaving ample room for drug smuggling, human trafficking, among other crimes directly related to organized crime organizations (The Current State of the Border Fence Key Highlights, 2019). Mexican drug cartels have utilized several methods to transport narcotics into the U.S., one of the most common methods is illegal border crossings, including the use of tunnels, drones, and water. While the Trump administration has successfully moved towards elongating the physical wall to reduce illegal traffic into the country, a wall will not stop drug trafficking. The Mexican Drug Cartels have been known to make use of underground tunnels which can be equipped with rail systems that transport heavy packages up to thirty-five tons. To detect tunnels, a Tunnel Task Force is tasked with discovering tunnels across the country and sealing them, which since 2001, more than 60 tunnels have identified, many running as far as eight football fields in length (Solis, n.d.).

Mexican Cartels are not only linked to thousands of murders, but they have also expanded operations to include kidnapping, extortion, and human smuggling. Mexican Cartels have defied U.S. Drug Policies from the very beginning, this was first displayed through the prohibition of alcohol where Mexican gangs began trafficking alcohol for illegal consumption in our Country. The same defilement has continued as Mexican smuggling activities have adjusted to the demand of consumers as well as the legalization of marijuana. The Mexican Cartels present a staggering threat to its own country and U.S security by being one of the most powerful cartels that feed smaller gangs, addiction, and is directly related to increased crime rates. U.S. training provided by border patrol agents has been vital to ensuring that Mexican federal police officers are given the tools necessary to combat the violence that breeds from cartels; however, the efforts have not gone gar. The cartels have been successful in the intimidation of the Mexican forces, where weakness against organized crime proves to both the community and the cartel that they still pose over the government.

Operation Intercept was one of the earlier attempts to weaken Mexican drug cartels and drug use overall. During his administration, President Nixon experienced a crisis of drug use and believed that the Mexican government was not taking an aggressive enough approach in the prevention of drugs crossing into the U.S. The Operation was called on by former President Nixon and involved the searching of vehicles of those attempting to cross the southern border. The Operation, however, only lasted 17 days as the search of vehicles backed up the transportation of goods coming into the country and eventually impacted the economy on both ends. Operation Condor took place between 1976 to 1978 where Mexican authorities agreed to work with the US in an anti-drug offensive (Grillo, 2019). The US provided the Mexican government with Helicopters, aircraft, which were used by Mexico to spray crops in the Sierra Madre, while soldiers stormed into villages targeting alleged traffickers. While the cartels did take a significant loss throughout the operations, they continued to establish operations in Guadalajara. However, the Operation also became known for specializing in abductions, torture as a method of interrogation, and the creation of teams to conduct assassinations (McSherry, 2001).


 Evolution of Cocaine Trafficking and the Challenges of Border Security


The illegal drug trade, particularly cocaine trafficking, has a long and complex history. This essay examines the development of cocaine trafficking during two distinct time periods, 1947-1959 and 1959-1964, as well as the challenges faced in securing the Mexican border against drug smuggling. Drawing on scholarly sources, this discussion sheds light on the evolution of the drug trade and the effectiveness of border security measures.


In the late 1940s, smuggling routes for cocaine began to emerge, connecting countries like Chile, Cuba, Brazil, and Argentina to other Latin American cities (Gootenberg, 2007). The cradle of cocaine production, Huanuco in Peru, played a significant role during this period. The United Nations (UN) recognized the need to combat cocaine production and consumption, leading to Peru’s ban on cocaine and the implementation of punitive drug control measures (Gootenberg, 2007). Bolivia, however, took longer to comply with these international efforts. Notably, the first international drug bust occurred in 1949 when U.S. law enforcement captured members of the Balarezo gang, who had ties to Peruvian dealers (Beittel et al., 2019).


During this period, cocaine trafficking shifted from Chile to Mexico, where organized international drug rings, including American mafias, played a significant role (Gootenberg, 2007). Bolivian cocaine seizures at U.S. borders and increased inter-American cocaine merchants added to the mounting pressure for stricter drug control measures (Gootenberg, 2007). The mid-1960s saw the emergence of the Ades-Mexican routes as the primary supply route for cocaine entering the United States, foreshadowing the rise of Sinaloan drug lords in the 1980s (Seelke et al., 2021). Additionally, Argentine traffickers began utilizing drug flights to Miami and Europe (Gootenberg, 2007).

The Challenges of Border Security

The Mexican border, spanning approximately 1,954 miles, poses significant challenges for border security. While physical barriers have been implemented, such as fencing and anti-vehicle barriers, drug cartels have adapted their smuggling methods (The Current State of the Border Fence Key Highlights, 2019). Underground tunnels equipped with rail systems have been used to transport large quantities of narcotics, and the detection and sealing of these tunnels have been ongoing challenges (Solis, n.d.). Mexican cartels have also expanded their operations to include human trafficking, kidnapping, and extortion, further complicating border security efforts (Su et al., 2021).

Efforts to combat drug trafficking, such as Operation Intercept and Operation Condor, have faced limitations and unintended consequences. Operation Intercept, initiated by President Nixon, led to economic disruptions but failed to achieve its intended goals due to extensive vehicle searches (Grillo, 2019). Operation Condor, involving collaboration between the U.S. and Mexican governments, resulted in significant losses for cartels but also witnessed human rights abuses (McSherry, 2001).


Understanding the historical evolution of cocaine trafficking and the challenges associated with border security is crucial for devising effective strategies to combat drug smuggling. By recognizing the changing patterns of drug routes and the adaptability of criminal organizations, policymakers can work towards comprehensive approaches that combine law enforcement efforts, intelligence sharing, and international cooperation to mitigate the impact of drug trafficking on society and public safety.


Beittel, J. S. (2019). Mexico: organized crime and drug trafficking organizations. Current Politics and Economics of the United States, Canada and Mexico, 21(2), 181-223.https://search.proquest.com/openview/362190942721a1c7b8c2931429246ca9/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2034879 

Seelke, C. R. (2021, November). Mexico: Evolution of the Merida Initiative, 2007-2021. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC.https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/AD1172031.pdf 

Su, X., & Li, C. (2021). Bordering dynamics and the geopolitics of cross-border tourism between China and Myanmar. Political Geography, 86, 102372.https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0308518X19863066 

Homework Writing Bay

Calculate the price of your paper

Total price:$26
Our features

We've got everything to become your favourite writing service

Need a better grade?
We've got you covered.

Order your paper